Monday, August 24, 2020
Tribute - Article Example ime working in an emergency clinic to be nearest among the debilitated, the individuals who are undermined in wellbeing, and the individuals who look to recuperate from sufferings of the body, mind, and even the soul. At that, I needed to be recognized as a sustaining companion, a gave and submitted medicinal services specialist. To my expert associates, who I worked steadily in the clinic, I trust you would proceed with our intense want to be instrumental supporters of the improvement of wellbeing and prosperity of those we serve. I love each second went through with a sickly kid or a recuperating senior, just as sharing the difficulties during crisis circumstances, and the fun out of a container of doughnuts or a steaming hot mug of espresso. Each grin, signal of thankfulness, and firm affirmation of appreciation for having been of administration to these individuals are the ones that I would recall most. At that, I need you to recollect me as a submitted wellbeing laborer, a firm adherent to all encompassing mindful and that whatever type of solace and caring that could be given ought to be agreed with adoration and confidence that a Supreme Being guides all of us. To my friends and family, I need all of you to realize that I am the most lucky individual who ever have lived in this world. All of you have been my purposes behind living. Your motivation, comprehensive help, and unequivocal love turned into my main impetus to share that equivalent eagerness and love for life to other people. The glow and caring that have been concurred me through my reality was simply unique. I am certain that you should all vibe the misfortune and the torment of my death; as I am certain that if any of you would have been in my place now, I would moreover feel the equivalent. In any case, let me guarantee you that I would all be seeing you again to that uncommon spot that is held for us in interminable life. As granddad used to state, passing is only a progress. It is venturing past the physical domain to profound measurement. It is anticipating an interminable joy with all the heavenly attendants and holy people. Finally I would
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The effect of the counter migration laws that have been presented by Arizona and the support of Hispanics in the U.S. political framework - Research Paper Example The migration issue has been taking the spotlight in ongoing decades in America. It has been a waiting worry for Americans who are beginning to scrutinize the since a long time ago held mantra that the United States is the place where there is practically limitless chances. There is a developing apprehension among the populace that such boundless open doors are not true anymore today or that they never again are as simple as they were before. The US government has really faltered regarding tending to the issue head-on. For example from 1960 to 1970, a significant movement approach change was instituted with the corrections to the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and thereafter, many idea that it was sufficient. No huge movement approach was presented well until the 1990s. Ongoing turns of events, be that as it may, are essentially squeezing migration policymaking. The US is considered to have the most elevated movement rates internationally and that in excess of a million peop le lawfully move to the nation every year, driving remote conceived residents to establish 13 percent of the whole American populace. (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt 2008, p. 482) This figure avoids the migrants that cross the US fringe unlawfully. The previous American Ambassador to Mexico, Jeffrey Davidow (2007) summarized the predominant assessment: While race-goading and savage enemy of settler opinion had to a great extent vanished from the American political vernacular, there was a bothering nervousness about the developing number of outsiders in the United States. Americans were asking, Ã¢â¬Å"Where did every one of these individuals originated from? (11)Ã¢â¬ With the current extended monetary downturn, the high and consistent transition of the expansion rate, the legislatures amassing obligation and spending shortfalls, just as the high number of employment misfortunes, the open is progressively dreadful that workers would remove occupations that ought to have been taken by Americans in any case. Reviews led from 1960s until today exhibit the expanding worry of Americans for movement (Simcox 1997, 129) It is in this regard the severe enemy of migration strategy was sanctioned by the province of Arizona. This paper will look at the laws authorized by the state against migration and its effect, especially in the interest of Hispanics in the American constituent procedure. Foundation: The Arizona Anti-Immigration Laws Prior to the order of the arrangement of Arizona against migration laws, two huge movement resolutions were established in the US: the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act (IIRIRA). Both of these enactments mean to oversee migration with the previous concentrating on changeless settlers rather than the impermanent passage so as to check the progression of undocumented transients; while the last mentioned, improving the current law and including the consent for the Immigra tion and Naturalization Services (INS) approval Ã¢â¬Å"to bar reemergence to the United States if an outsider exceeded his/her visa cutoff time for departureÃ¢â¬ (Adams 56). Many were not happy with the aftereffects of these measures. To acquire AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢ words: The soul and structure of both the 1986 and 1996 migration laws neglected to address the grassroots progression of outsiders at the source Ã¢â¬ the official government mentality and movement strategy shirking by Mexico. Despite the way that from 1994 to 2001 (pre-9/11) the yearly U.S. outskirt authorization spending plan of the INS and the Border Patrol almost significantly increased to over $2.5 billion, the migrant stream proceeded about unchecked (56). A decent piece of the years after, a developing discussion rose regarding how to best address the issue. In 2004, as a major aspect of the expanding effect of the September 11, 2001 psychological oppressor assault in New York, movement approach took an expanding rel ationship to fear mongering and outskirt security. For instance, the United States Visitor Immigration Status
Thursday, July 16, 2020
Academic Support Needed for High Schoolers With ADHD May 30, 2019 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Phil Boorman Research finds that a little over half of high school students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are receiving some type of formal school-based service, yet many low achievers with ADHD are not getting the academic supports they need. One of the most potentially debilitating difficulties students with ADHD often experience is chronic academic underachievement relative to their intellectual abilities. The high school years can be especially challenging for a struggling student with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD tend to experience even greater levels of academic impairment, with lower grade point averages, placement in lower-level classes (for example, remedial vs honors) and failure in more courses compared to students without ADHD. High school students with ADHD also have significantly higher rates of drop-out, as compared to their peers. To compound the problem, the struggles teens with ADHD face to focus on and complete work and perform at their abilities are often viewed as a willful lack of motivation rather than related to an academic impairment. Chronic underachievement in the high school years can have negative long-term consequences that can impact adulthood. There is clearly a need for more effective educational interventions for this age group of students with ADHD. Compared to the resources that are available for younger students with ADHD, there are relatively few evidence-based interventions for ADHD in high school. Research published in the journal School Mental Health (June 2014) aims to increase our understanding by examining the prevalence and characteristics of school-based interventions provided to this age group. Participants in the study were from the longitudinal follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment study of Children with and without ADHD (MTA) across seven sites. Researchers examined a broad, detailed range of services for 543 high school students participating in the study. Using data collected directly from the schools, rates of school services for both high school students with and without a history of ADHD were analyzed. Services included special education as well as other accommodations and school-based mental health-related interventions. Study Findings The study found that over half of the students with a history of ADHD were receiving services through an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) or 504 plan, a rate that is six times as high as for the comparison sample of students without ADHD. The average number of interventions for students with ADHD and an IEP/504 plan was five. Common accommodations included extended time, modified assignments, tests or grading standards, and slower-paced instruction, as well as supports such as progress monitoring, behavior management programs, study skills or learning strategy instruction, and self-advocacy training. Almost all were receiving at least one academic intervention while only half were receiving any behavioral intervention or learning strategy. Very few services (except tutoring) were provided to those students without a formal IEP or 504 plan. Although school procedures for identifying academic impairment in this population appear to be working for the most part, our results also suggest that 20 to 30 percent of students with academic impairment and ADHD have fallen through the cracks, said Desiree W. Murray, Ph.D., lead author of the study. There is a need for greater or more effective academic supports for a substantial minority of the students in our sample. Murray and her colleagues also found that only approximately one-fourth of the interventions being used have evidence of support for ADHD in the literature. The most common supports usedâ"extended time on tests and assignments, progress monitoring, and case managementâ"have no reported evidence of efficacy in improving performance among ADHD students, according to study authors. Improving Academic Services The study found specific areas where services could be improved for high school students with ADHDâ"areas such as teaching self-advocacy and self-management strategies and specific study/organizational skills. These types of strategies may be more helpful in reducing the performance gap between students with and without ADHD. Evidence-based practices can help improve long-term outcomes for high school students with ADHD, said Murray. Providing effective services may contribute to increased graduation rates and successful transitions to adult life.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Drinking and driving is the number one killer of teenagers in America. Because of it, the teenage group is the only age group whoÃ¢â¬â¢s number of deaths are increasing instead of decreasing. Outright denying teens of alcohol doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work. That just makes young adults want alcohol even more. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s sad about drinking under the influence cases is that every one of them could have been easily prevented. So, if you cannot deny adolescences of alcohol, why not just educate them on simple precautions that can be taken to prevent drinking and driving.One of the best and oldest ways to stop drinking under the influence is having a designated driver. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not a hard thing to do. Just asking someone responsible to accompany you to a party (orÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Also, you tend to drink a lot more than what you can take.What if youÃ¢â¬â¢re the person whoÃ¢â¬â¢s throwing the party and serving the alcohol? Well, try to be the least bit responsible and help your fellow friends out. Before you let someone into your party, ask him or her to hand in their keys. No keys, no admittance. Doing this will prevent drinkers from ever using that car that night. What if someone refuses? Just donÃ¢â¬â¢t let them in. If that person gets into an accident after the party, you will probably be held responsible for serving the beverages. Serving food first before drinks is also a good idea. As explained before, food helps the body absorb alcohol better. Furthermore, always respect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s choice not to drink. That person can be a designated driver. If not, he or she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a Ã¢â¬Å"sissy,Ã¢â¬ theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just trying to play it cautious. So, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made it through the night. You had only a few drinks so your senses are just barley impaired. What about everyone else who had a bit more than they should have? Well, if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t taken their keys already, the best thing to do is to avoid drunk drivers. Here are some visual cues that have a good probability that the person behind the wheel is drunk.Turning With Wide RadiusStraddling Center or Lane MarkerAppearing to be DrunkAlmost Striking Object or VehicleWeavingDriving on Other Than Designated RoadwayMP Below LimitIf you see anyone giving one or more of those visual
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The three Abrahamic religions share not just the same Supreme Being but they also share several common themes. Many people view these three religions as separate entities but are more related than most people would expect. A simple commonality between the Abrahamic religions is that they all have a center of worship and traveling to these locations is a holy obligation to these faiths. Jerusalem and the nation of Israel is the seat of Judaism. Israel s diverse culture stems from the diversity of its population: Jews from diaspora communities around the world have brought their cultural and religious traditions back with them, creating a melting pot of Jewish customs and beliefs. Vatican City is an enclave within the city of Rome is home to Saint PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s Basilica. St. Peter s is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines. It has been designated as a unique position in the Christian world. Vatican City is also the seat of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and is the birthplace of Mohammed. For centuries Mecca has served as a major economic hub, for it lays in between Europe and Asia. Mohammed is o nce exiled from Mecca but returns years later with an army. But Mohammed recognized the importance of this city and knew that its financial influence would be key toward to founding of Islam. Hajj, one of the Five Pillars, is the pilgrimage to Mecca must be done at least once forShow MoreRelatedThe Comparison of Hinduism and Abrahamic Religions1149 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComparison of Hinduism and Abrahamic Religions The Comparison of Hinduism and Abrahamic Religions By Christa Dunwoody Abstract The differences between Hinduism and Abrahamic Religions are many. The primary difference of beliefs is that Abrahamic Religion believes that there is one God. 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Both religions have had substantial impact on the course of history and have formed the basis of many countries laws and are highly recognized by governments. Though Christianity is more widely known, they both pose the same challenges to each other. Considering the similarities and differences of Christianity and Islam, it can be said they are both very different. Comparing the two religions, is simpler due to theRead MoreThree Religions : One God1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThree Religions: One God Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are three of the most influential religions in the world. Together, they account for almost four billion followers. These religions are usually referred to as the Abrahamic religions. This is because they all claim Abraham as an important pillar of their faith. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism have many things in common, including a main place of worship and holy book, but within these similarities are some major differences. ChristianityRead MoreThe Social Question And Existential Question Of Religion793 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe social question and the existential question of religions have always played a huge role in the implementation of individuals to communities and its connection to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s or a divine figureÃ¢â¬â¢s plan in the universe. Therefore by comparing, contrasting and assessing the religions of Christianity and Hinduism this essay will seek to answer both the social question of human unity and the existential questions of human relation to a divine beingÃ¢â¬â¢s plan for the universe. For Christianity the socialRead MoreThe Three Major Religions Essay1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Major Religions Judaism, Christianity and Islamic Humanities 101 August 28, 2010 Strayer University The major religions in the world are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are monotheistic religions, namely they believe that there is only one God. All three religions believe that this God is the origin and source of all that exists. God cares about the entire creation and desires the well-being of all. God is just and has provided basicRead MoreSimilarities Between Christianity And Islam1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesancient Christianity and Islam. Christianity and Islam are both closely related religions, because they are branched of Abraham and other patriarchs mentioned in Hebrew Scriptures. Examples of these books are the Old/ New testament and the Quran. These books serve as their spiritual ancestors and are also know as Abrahamic religions. Although these books have a massive amount in common the clash of these two religions has caused for a mass crimes and violence across humanity. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"most genocidesRead MoreSeparation From God As A Result Of Their Sinfulness, But984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreincarnation. Suffering is a large part in understanding the afterlife, as attaining nirvana is the only way to escape earthly suffering permanently. This nirvana is not a place like in Christianity, but a sense of bliss. The philosophy of each religion, both Buddhism and Christianity, is vastly different. Within the Christian faith, to life a Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ life, you are to worship a divine being that is all powerful, all good, and all knowing. A supernatural force that created life, the universe, andRead MoreThe Controversy Of Religious Ethicists1817 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesif it is possible to engage in cross-religious ethical evaluation and give my reasoning on why I believe that it is possible but that it is not always a guaranteed path to follow. To begin, I will give a quick overview of OhÃ¢â¬â¢s example in chapter three of Elizabeth Bucar and Aaron StalnakerÃ¢â¬â¢s book Religious Ethics in a Time of Globalism: Shaping a Third Wave of Comparative Analysis. The topics of discussion in this chapter are Muslim mothers and martyrdom. The main point that Oh is explaining isRead MoreChristianity And The Modern World Essay1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmore. They all define who we represent in our everyday lives as individuals. Likewise, a major religious ideology that has been prevalent in the Modern World since 1815 is Christianity. Christianity is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest religion serving as an umbrella term for so many sub religions and representing so many interpretations. Since its creation it has played a major role in the lives of thousands of individuals seeking to Ã¢â¬Å"rebornÃ¢â¬ in the eyes of their lord and savior Jesus Christ. As a result, is it
string(178) " and three types of involvement \(low involvement, cognitive involvement, affective involvement\) on the formation of attitudes towards a brand in the context of TV commercials\." The idea of using music as a way of advertising goes all the way back to colonial times when street vendors hawked their good to the tune of a melodic chant. Of course we also know that music has been used often as a way of fixing a product in our mind. A memorable tune that Ã¢â¬Å"sticks in your mindÃ¢â¬ is the marketerÃ¢â¬â¢s dream. We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Music on Counsumer Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now Music that is written for a company or industry often benefits the entire industry. One of the first industry wide musical plugs (no pun intended) was for the tobacco industry through songs such as the 1836 song Think ; Smoke Tobacco, by John Ashton and Pipe de Tabac by John Hewitt. Lyrics also play an important part in the use of music as advertising. Just as a catchy tune could attack your senses, a good Ã¢â¬Å"jingleÃ¢â¬ or cute lyrics could become a part of society for quite some time. The power of this form of advertising is just formidable. Consumer researchers have found emotional response to advertisement, by consumers. Background music is one of the major component influencing audience responses to certain products that they buy. Popular music in television commercials is nothing new. In fact, television advertising right from its very beginning in the early 1950s has relied heavily on music to get peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, set a mood, creates the right brand image and sells the advertiserÃ¢â¬â¢s product. The reason why is simple it works. Music plays an important role on individuals belonging to various cultural backgrounds. Music can relax us, excite us, make us want to get up and dance or simply involve ourselves by listening. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what makes it such a powerful tool in advertising. Very often, more recognizable songs are used as background usic to set a mood or to help establish an image for the product. Early television commercials in the 1950s featured well known classical masterpieces as background music, to attract consumers towards their product. Advertisers later on expanded themselves into jazz and rhythm and blues. Soon TV commercials were featuring songs like Duke EllingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Satin DollÃ¢â¬ and GershwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Rhap sody in BlueÃ¢â¬ as background music to help sell a variety of different products. Music plays the following role Entertainment: Music contributes to the effectiveness of an advertisement by making it more attractive. A good ad always tries to engage the attention of an audience, and makes it entertaining for them. To an extent all music broadcasted on commercial ads as well as radio serves as a loss leader. Any music can potentially act in this role of entertainment. Moreover, the music need not necessarily be evident of any special attraction with a particular product or service in order to play an effective and useful function. Structure/Continuity: Music can be used in various structural roles. As a structural role, music helps in tying jointly a sequence of visual images and series of dramatic episodes, narrative voice-overs, and a list of product appeals. This is the function of continuity. Memory ability: Music should be such in advertisements that it increases the Memorability of the productÃ¢â¬â¢s name. Consumers are known to favor products which give some degree of recognition or familiarity, even if it is merely the productÃ¢â¬â¢s name. Thus, the association of music with the identity of a certain product may greatly aid in product recall. Lyrical Language: A fourth technique of musical enhancement is the use of lyrical language. Vocal music permits the conveyance of a verbal message in a non spoken way. Language utterances can sound much less naive or self-indulgent when couched within a musical phrase rather than simply spoken. An individual can respectably sing things which would sound utterly trite if said. Targeting: Once an appropriate medium is chosen, second considerations are targeting the consumer, thereby engaging or charm those viewers who constitute the target demographic group. Music has long been identified with various social and demographic groups. Musical style therefore assists in targeting a specific market. The style may function as a socioeconomic identifier or may act as a device for addressing a specific group of audience. Authority Establishment: Music enhances to the credibility of the product in this way that establishes its authority. A simple way of establishing authority is through expert testimony. Authority may also be fostered through testimonials of non-technical authorities . Thus to an extent to succeed in advertising an audience, should also be kept in mind , advertising done must also have genuity in it. Music affects shopper time perception: Several studies indicate that music can effectively reduce anxiety, increase positive mood ratings, alleviate depression, and decrease frustration. Music has also been seen to influence consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s time perception. Standing in queues listening to the right kind of music makes the waiting experience more pleasant and entertaining hence reducing the perception of time in store. Music helps in making impulsive purchases: Music helps consumers associate some feelings or emotions such as joy, love, fear, hope, sexuality, fantasy and helps in developing a mood for shopping. Music also helps in creating an impulsive environment that can be extremely beneficial to the consumers in selecting a particular product. Increase brand loyalty: Music helps in enhancing brand loyalty in a way that it integrates the meaning of a message of the particular brand thus creating brand loyalty amongst the customers. Music is a positive addition to the consumer environment: Music plays an important role by creating a positive environment, under which all consumers are influenced by music. Example: When an individual enter the shop of K;NÃ¢â¬â¢s the jingle of the brand keeps on playing thus creating a positive effect on the consumer . Music has also been used to induce either a pleasant or unpleasant affective state and examine its Interaction with the affective tone of an advertisement (Gorn, Pham, ; Sin 2001). Both arousal, pleasure can be manipulated with music. Music and Congruence: Park and Young (1986) examined the effect of music (present, absent) and three types of involvement (low involvement, cognitive involvement, affective involvement) on the formation of attitudes towards a brand in the context of TV commercials. You read "Effects of Music on Counsumer Behavior" in category "Papers" Music increased the brand attitude for subjects In the low involvement condition but had a distracting effect for those in the cognitive involvement condition. Its effect for those in the affective involvement condition was not clear. They argue that music acted as a peripheral persuasion cue. When the music was attention grabbing it pulled listenerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention away from the message and negatively influenced recall. The no music ads performed as well or better than the musical ads in terms of recall and recognition. Thus the relationship between the fit of the mood, induced music (happy/sad) developed the purchase decision for the customer. USES OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF MUSIC Fast or slow music in a retail environment Research found out that people move steadily when slow rhythm music is played. Study was conducted in two supermarkets found a huge increase in sales when slow rhythm music was played: Ã¢â¬Å"In that study the gross sales increased from $12,112 for the fast rhythm music to $16,740 for the slow rhythm music. This is an increase of 38%. In addition to it Ã¢â¬Å"Customers moved slowly when soft music was played, taking 128 seconds, and faster when fast music was played, taking 109 seconds. Ã¢â¬ Same results have been observed in restaurants: customers tend to persist when the music is slow and soft. Where you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want people to linger, you could be better off playing loud, fast tempo music especially if you run a fast-moving restaurant. But, retail environments often want the ir clients to stay for longer time in their stores, so softer music is more appropriate. A study discovered that customer spent almost 23% more money in a restaurant when softer music was being played. Interestingly, increase in spending came on the drinks bill (which grew by almost 51% on avg), which are the most profitable items in most restaurants. ? Loud or soft Usually, people spend much less time in the environment where louder music is played One article wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"A person is likely to stay in a restaurant playing soft music 20% longer than if the music is loud, with a slight increase in the amount of money spent on food and drinks. For grocery stores, it was found that the volume made no difference on how much money was spent. Another study by Caldwell and Hibbert (2002) found that when slow music was played, patrons stayed for 20% longer but also spent more on food and drink Ã¢â¬â in fact, up to 50% more. In other words, to keep your customers, keep it soft and slow. And likewise, if you want quick turnover, speed things up and keep it loud. Ã¢â¬ In bars, where music is very loud and fast that it hinders conversation, people drink more and drink faster. An academic study found: Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental music was associated with an increase in alcohol consumption. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Forty male beer drinkers were observed in a bar. Ã¢â¬ ¦ The results show that high level volume led to increased alcohol consumption and reduced the average amount of time spent by the patrons to drink their glass. Ã¢â¬ Use of hit songs and unknown songs In business and retail environments, popular music tends to be too distracting, taking people away from the task at hand, and makes them focus on the music. You want the music to Ã¢â¬Å"MELTÃ¢â¬ in the environment, giving a feeling of calm or energy, but not grabbing the attention of the people. Ã¢â¬Å"Popular or hitÃ¢â¬ music is too catchy, and causes lower purchasing in retail environments and decreased productivity in offices. The usic that should be played has to be good and very close enough to hit music that people enjoy it, but it must not be too catchy. Classical or chill outs In a study it has been found out that Ã¢â¬Å"Classical musicÃ¢â¬ increases the amount of money people are willing to spend. Normally, people will buy more expensive goods when classical music is being played. MUSIC AND MARKETERS Marketers uses music to reach at own goal in making advertising. Marketers doing in following way: Music Exists In A Context Music does not work alone. It exists within an advertisement with complex visual, verbal, and other nonverbal stimuli. How all of these are perceived depends on the complex interaction of internal (biological) and external (social, cultural influences) factors which also affect when and how musical taste is developed. Music is primarily a cultural and social phenomenon and reflects the values and attitudes of a subculture. Sociological forces affect images and preferences about products that are desirable, and music, if it fits with those images, may enhance the following variables: 1) persuasion through prior learning and verbal association, 2) recall, 3) overall ad effectiveness, Preference for the product and 5) facilitation of mental images. The following-discussion will elaborate further on the topic of music as a facilitator of mental images, and its role in advertising, education, communication, psychology, and marketing. The Importance of The Role Assigned To Music In An Ad It seems that the salience of music in an ad will depend on whether the ad is primarily affective or cognitive based (Park and Young, 1986; and Holbrook and Hirschman, 1982), who the target market is, and how well the message communication goal (meaning) of the ad will fit with the music. Consequently, we suggest a tentative hierarchy of musical presence model, to define the role assigned to music in communicating the advertising message. Basically, the degree to which music is assigned a dominant role is revealed by the degree to which it will be in the foreground, be distinctive, will be noticed, and will be more likely to be part of an affect-based ad. The degree to which music is assigned a less dominant role is the degree to which it will recede into the background, be less distinctive, be less attention-getting, and the ad will be less likely to be affect-based. This model is based on observation of about 60 advertisements on day-time T. V. , and is presented here as way of summarizing the role music plays going from a most dominant and distinctive to a barely noticeable presence, to no presence. Since many ads have a combination of cognitive and affective components, with degrees of emphasis on one or the other, the role of music will tend to follow this degree of emphasis in the advertisement. That is, all things being equal, the more salient the role music has in the ad, the more affect-based the ad is likely to be, and We less salient role music has, the more cognitive-based the ad will be. The hierarchy of musical presence model is suggested as follows, going from most to least salient: A. in ads where music primarily carries the entire message and meaning, music will be used in the following ways: 1. When music with lyrics carries the adÃ¢â¬â¢s verbal message and meaning, it has been assigned a dominant role in also providing an atmosphere, creating an image, setting a mood, and influencing affect throughout the ad. The ad will be primarily affective-based, appealing to feelings. In this case, music will always be in the foreground, with very little voice-over, if any. Sometimes music composed especially for the purpose of the ad, or a fairly well-known song for example, such as Ã¢â¬Å"April in ParisÃ¢â¬ (for rich French roast coffee by Maxwell House), can be used primarily to carry the message of the ad. The use of Ã¢â¬Å"April in ParisÃ¢â¬ reflects the age of the target market, desire for foreign travel, and its taste in style of music; 2. When the lyrics of the song do not carry the adÃ¢â¬â¢s message directly (the words are about things other than the product and do not contribute to the atmosphere or mood), but the music is in the foreground throughout the ad, and is the primary form of communication; 3. hen instrumental or electronic music (without lyrics) is in the foreground, there is almost no voice-over, and the verbal message is brief and in written form, music has also been assigned a dominant role and will provide the above-mentioned attributes; B. in ads where the message is carried primarily by a voice-over, music is used in t he following ways: 1. Music is in the background, very quiet, generally not distinctive, resembles Ã¢â¬Å"elevator music,Ã¢â¬ and the voice-over continues throughout the ad; 2. The music background lasts for the duration of one or two short verbal phrases, usually at the end of the ad. It is used to emphasize a phrase as in a key brand attribute, or logo; 3. No music. Although most commercials use music, some research has indicated that music may distract from message processing, and other research supports the facilitating effect of music. While musical characteristics or elements do shape overall musical meaning, a musical selection can distract or enhance message processing, if placed in an inappropriate advertising context, where the adÃ¢â¬â¢s intended meaning and the music are not a good. While music may enhance processing in one setting, it may distract in another. Its impact largely depends on how well it fits with the advertisementÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning, and the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s level and type of ad involvement. In trying to determine what musical selection fits with what advertisement, a clear communication goal of the ad is required (cognitive, affective), along with knowledge of the intended target marketÃ¢â¬â¢s musical taste, preferences, and if possible, the meanings and feelings associated with particular musical selections. Finally, it is useful to possess an understanding of the musical characteristics or elements of the designated musical selection, as these often affect the above variables. From the musical presence hierarchy model, we note through preliminary observation that the more salient music is in an ad, the more affect-based the ad is. In general, advertising practitioners have used music which was familiar with their target market, and which fit with the adÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning. Note that under conditions of high cognitive involvement, music is seldom used, and when used, seldom effective. How, When, Why Music Works In Imagery Production A number of studies find that music is considered as a valid facilitator of mental images. Music also has been used as a stimulus to evoke images in educational and therapeutic settings. Music used simultaneously with words and sounds was found to increase image production. Farnsworth (1976) reports that music evokes very little universally similar mental imagery beyond what appears in all cultures, such as the use of soft melodies for mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ lullabies. He also states that in western culture most people of the same subculture have similar imagery stimulated when presented with a descriptive narrative with specific imagery using concrete words. These words used to accompany music make for powerful, learned associations, so that when we hear the Ã¢â¬Å"Star Spangled Banner,Ã¢â¬ we hear the words that go with it and we all tend to have similar visual imagery. Since the same music may not evoke uniform imagery among listeners, there is uncertainty regarding whether or not high and low imagery music can be 1) agreed upon, and 2) distinguished by the type of music represented. Although the designative meaning of music is made up of individual images, thoughts, and memories associated with a particular musical piece (Meyer, 1956), and is therefore frequently individualistic, musicians have often written programmatic music with titles which encourage similar imagery. For example, Mussorgsky used pizzicato strings to represent what he labeled Ã¢â¬Å"chicken cluckingÃ¢â¬ in his Ã¢â¬Å"Pictures at an Exhibition. Ã¢â¬ Advertisers of course supply Ã¢â¬Å"labelsÃ¢â¬ with verbal statements about the product (emphasized by music) and/or lyrics of jingles. It appears that prior learning and verbal associations, when paired repeatedly with certain pieces of music, are likely to evoke more nearly uniform mental imagery among listeners. In a marketing and advertising context, imagery impacts consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge in many important ways. Imagery systems contribute to a definition of product imagery and affect how a brand Ã¢â¬Å"communicatesÃ¢â¬ with the consumer. Imagery is a process through which sensory information is stored in working memory. Since memory imagery involves sensory and concrete representations of ideas, feelings, and memories, it can allow a visual reconstruction of an event in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind which has been experienced before and stored in memory. Among the variables that can produce imagery-in an advertisement are words, imagery instructions, and music. Stewart, Farmer, and Stannard (forthcoming) note that in those situations where image advertising uses music, the use of a musical cue provides the opportunity to elicit images, beliefs, and associations. Their forthcoming studyÃ¢â¬â¢s results indicate that music with lyrics is statistically significant in eliciting more image types of responses referring to people, actions, or setting than verbal cues. Findings in this study suggest that the musical cue is a more sensitive measure of memory than verbal product and brand cues. Another example where imagery plays a part in the degree of fit between the music and the meaning of the advertisement is in the romantic, nostalgic song Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll Be Seeing You. Used as background for a FTD florist ad, this song may prove effective. However, if paired with the packing up of a seasonal, everyday item like a portable fan, the effect will be somewhat comical. The organization of musical elements remain the same in the song, but the context surrounding the music has changed from a romantic, nostalgic setting (a good fit in terms of imagery) to a more mundane one. Therefore imagery of the product and the ad can be affected by the f t betw een musical meaning and the meaning of the ad. Music Also Affects Important Mood States. When a person enters in a restaurant, supermarket, or malls for shopping, Customers when enter in shopping malls, restaurant, or supermarkets their walking pace is fast and no product catch their eye they follow their mind set. They usually do not have in good mood due to huge traffic and unpleasant noise. Music not only slow down their pace but make their mood positive which ultimately increase the sales. Music not only enhances recall for a product or an ad through an evoked image, but it may evoke a mood, feelings, emotions, and behaviors. Consumer behavior theorists have conceptualized how consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes, affective states, and behaviors have been impacted by moods under central and peripheral processing, as well as affect -and behavior conditioning. Variables Affecting Mood Moods can be affected by many different variables. Gardner (1985) discusses studies of independent variables found to induce mood states, such as weather and temperature variation, positive test feedback, finding a dime in a phone booth, winning a computer game, receiving a free gift, getting cookies, and receiving good news and bad news. Participation in activities such as smiling or frowning, reading stories, and recalling or imagining emotional experiences may also induce mood changes. In view of the fact that music is a common element in commercials, and one which has a long history of mood inducement in a variety of contexts, the next section will focus on how music has been used as an independent variable to affect moods, as well as other dependent variables of interest to marketers. For brevity, this section will highlight key studies. Details on these and other studies are in Alpert and Alpert (1990) and Bruner (forthcoming). Gorn (1982) suggests that peripheral influences such as background music used in commercials may become associated with the advertised product (in memory, even if not consciously), and influence product choice through classical conditioning. Mere exposure did not lead to liking, which apparently depended on whether the target product, a pen, was presented with liked vs. disliked music. The second experiment by Gorn (1982) provided support for his hypothesis that when subjects were not in a decision-making mode; the commercialÃ¢â¬â¢s impact appeared to be more influential in its appeal when presented with musical background as opposed to product information. He concluded that through classical conditioning, the product becomes associated with the positive feelings of liked music. ? Commercial Business Uses of Music in Advertising Business uses of music in advertising date back to the earliest days of broadcast media. In the 1920s and 1930s, marketers like Procter and Gamble pioneered the concept of linking brand names to distinctive musical and dramatic themes. The approach was used not only in radio ads, but also in programming that the companies developed and controlled. It was later adapted to television commercials and to the enormously popular soap operas of the 1950s. Now music is used in advertising in key formats as a useful tool to sell products. Radio Two characteristics of radio give music a particularly important role. First, the medium is entirely dependent on engaging, creative audio. Second, because most listeners tune into the radio while driving or performing other activities, music helps to focus the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention on the product. Jingles, which are original tunes composed specifically to support a certain brand, are widespread in radio advertising. They are effective in enhancing recall of the brand name and key selling points. Television and Multimedia Producers of television commercials and other forms of multimedia advertising frequently purchase licensing rights to popular music. They also hire composers and lyricists to create original music. In these media, it is important for music to complement, not compete with, the visual elements of an ad. However, songs and background tunes can be more memorable than pictures and words in establishing a mood or bringing a brand image to life. Branded Entertainment or Product Placement: Rapidly growing in popularity, this is the newest way of integrating music with a business strategy. An original entertainment product, like a music video, is created by marketers to showcase their brand. The idea is to build consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of connection to a brand by engaging them with music. Coke Studio a big Success for Coke: Music is helping Coke against its competitor Pepsi in the cola war in Pakistan. By sponsoring Ã¢â¬Å"Coke Studio, Coke has gained major market share at PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s expense, according to a report in the Wall Street Journal. Coke now claims 35% of market share in Pakistan; PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s market share is now down to 65% from a high of 80% in 1990s which was achieved mainly through sponsorship of cricket in Pakistan. Coke Studio, sponsored by Coca Cola Pakistan, is a one-hour show that features musicians playing a distinct blend of fusion music that mixes traditional and modern styles. Helped by the media boom in Pakistan, the show has had dramatic success since it was launched three years ago. Effects of Music on Shoppers and Restaurant Patrons: According to a research people who heard music while shopping or eating at a restaurant or mall is influenced by the music and it affects what they buy and what they spend. Loudness, pace, rhythm of music effects on how long consumer spends their time in malls and restaurants, how much they purchase and how they view brands or products positively or negatively. Another research shows that departmental stores which play, top 20 music on the music chart, shoppers over 25 of those departmental stores believe that they have spent more time there and purchased more. On the other hand, departmental stores which play soft instrumental music, shoppers under 25 believe that they have spent more time shopping than they have. Therefore, these findings indicate that less preferred or unfamiliar music slows down the perceived time of the shoppers. (Yalch Spangenberg, 1990). REFERENCES http://www. queenslandnewsagents. com. au/assets/images/MusicConsumerBehaviour. pdf www. musiccog. ohio-state. edu http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Songs_in_advertising http://www. acrwebsite. org/search/view-conference-proceedings. aspx? Id=7166 suit101. com southasiainvestor. com riazhaq. com pakistanlink. org How to cite Effects of Music on Counsumer Behavior, Papers
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Table of Contents Introduction Issues Identification Issues Analysis Strategy Options Action Plan Evaluation of Results Reference list Introduction Toyota Corporation is a Japanese automobile manufacturer that is involved in robotics, biotechnology and financial services. The corporation has been in the industry since 1937, and has had a stain-free history and experienced an unprecedented growth in its operation, currently with over 500 subsidiaries and a labor force of more than 300,000 globally; however over the recent times, the corporation has been facing nightmares of all sorts.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company has been encountered by a number of crises ranging from leadership crisis, public relations, diminishing returns, and the global economic meltdown to the most recent crisis, the accelerator pedal defaults. In coun ter to these unanticipated situations threatening its continuity and in an attempt to recover from these crises, the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s public relations department was necessitated to formulate an issue management plan. In developing the issue management plan, the corporation has identified the important aspects that need consideration: the crisis management methods to be adopted, the Toyota communication plan, and the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s management team. It consists of ways of response to the crisis in reality and perception and metrics to define what scenarios are to be handled as crisis (Gottschalk 2002). Issues Identification The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s issues identification approach takes into consideration the entire process of ascertaining the financial, political, legal, government and communication problems associated with the crisis at hand. It all started with the financial warning that was issued by the corporation anticipating its first ever loss since its operations commen ced close to seventy years ago. A financial forecast that revealed the first ever operating loss was attributed largely to the slump in sales of the manufactured automobiles and robotics and the fact that that the value of the Yen was continuously becoming inferior to the dollar and other major world currencies. Toyota problems was compounded by stiff competition from other automobile manufacturers notably Honda and the slump in the global economy occasioned by the events in Wall Street. Manufacturers of automobile around the world were faced with a tough challenge due to a shake in the operating environment that caused a sharp shift in demand because of the deepened financial crisis that spread over consumers in worldwide. According to The Economist (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"the entity had reduced its operating estimate to a loss of 150 Billion Yen in its fiscal year that ended March 2010; the reduced estimate was subsequent to surprising the international economic markets by decreasing its g roup working earnings predictions by an unparalleled 1 trillion Yen.Ã¢â¬ Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s situation was further aggreviated by the recall crisis of its recently manufactured automobiles with supposedly faulty braking systems. This all started on 28th August, 2009 when a Californian highway patrol officer was travelling on Highway 125 in Santee California with members of his family when the Lexus ES350 they were travelling in unceremoniously accelerated out of control hitting other vehicles and rolling over an embankment bursting flames, killing all the four occupants. The incident was said to have been caused by a stuck accelerator that made the vehicle speed uncontrollably. This was followed by a series of similar accidents and complaints from customers over the issue, which led to the recall of over 8.1 million with US reporting 5.5 millio n cases and also led to suspension of sales of about eight of its best selling brands costing the corporation at least $54 million every day on lost sales. These crises coupled together have rely had a negative impact on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations in terms of moneys spend in rectifying the faulty pedals, lost sales, reduced profitability, decreased production and also its public relations. Notably the devastating impacts of these crises are evident on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s share, which has hit a new low of $71.80 in the New York stock and the corporation has reduced its networth by about $25 million. Issues Analysis Due to the proneness of the corporation to variations in the industry, the corporation has adopted a crisis contingency plan to cover uncertainties occurring, unlike in earlier times the corporation operated without a contingency plan that left the corporation at the risk of bad reputation, public scrutiny, even compromising its continuity in case where a crisis erup ts. The recall crisis took the American market by storm because of the negative publicity and anxiety caused to other customers with the latest Toyota models, the public went into a frenzy with many fearing to use our automobiles and discussions on social networks, televisions and print media reaching fever pitch. The management of the corporation in the US market went into a crisis meeting to evaluate the accuracy of the allegations and possibly do some damage control. The mangled wreck of the vehicle was collected and taken to the Toyota laboratories for investigations. However, preliminary reports on the crash from both the corporation and independent local authorities indeed showed that the Lexus ES 350 was acquired on a loan from Bob Baker Lexus Showroom of San Diego where the personal car of the victim was being held for repair in return. It was also clear that the Lexus may have been fitted with the wrong floor mats thereby interfering with its gas pedal. From these investiga tions, management learnt of the inherent risk in the latest automobiles from the American plant supplied into the market. In October 2010, an article in The Economist highlighted the level of hazard caused by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s automobiles.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Those affected were mainly individuals who had purchased their latest automobiles from the American plant. It was also reported that nine other separate incidents where local authority investigations on other accidents involving Toyota vehicles were done. Majority of the accidents were a consequence of wrong bottom mats and a number of others due to the spruce pieces on the Sienna models. Investigations reported also revealed that the other fatality accidents were as a result of unintended acceleration of the vehicles. Ã¢â¬Å"In depth investigations and analysis by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) further revealed that the mats used on the floor of these automobiles were specifically meant for the RX 400 SUV Toyota Lexus but these were erroneously used on the ES 350 model.Ã¢â¬ This manufacturing error resulted in the accelerator gearshift to wedge against the rubber mats causing the vehicles to speed up abruptly. Strategy Options The issues management plan shall incorporate specific management strategy options to be taken during crisis, depending on the nature and extent of the crisis, to minimize the impact of a looming crisis and provide a response mechanism that will mitigate any crisis occurring. The strategic options should address diverse scenarios of crises ranging from environmental crisis, natural calamities, and technological mishaps; confrontational crisis such as industrial action or crisis arising from management goofs and skewed management values. For effective strategic positioning in anticipation of cri sis, the corporation should provide for crisis planning. Since most crises occur within the predictability of a corporation, for the anticipated crisis, it should identify the dangers or risks involved in its market and come up with an issues management plan, which shows the measures to be put in place when crises strike. Crisis planning is aimed at minimizing the impact of the crisis and provides a response system and also aims at putting the organization at the best possible position to counteract and recover from crises. However, when planning, the crisis team should be inclusive and not limited to specific disasters, although it can lay more emphasis on the anticipated crisis. A more effective way for the organization to take is creating a crisis management function within its operations.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This operates as a division in the organization and its functions includes; predicting any occurrence of a crisis, planning to curb crisis, communicating and advising the management about the vulnerability of the organization. Issues planning will address matters like crisis management methods, communication plan, management team and the evacuation team. Another option is creation of a crisis team that is well prepared to combat any crisis. The management should identify the main players to take positions in the team, based on their specialty, character and ability to work. The crisis team responsibilities include: restoring information networks, control and commands in times of a crisis while acquiring information, so as to provide the senior staff with adequate information on the situation. To enable teamwork and to solve the crisis, the crisis team needs to adopt crisis management, for example performing drills or scenarios to create an imaginary crisis, to evaluate how the team would respond in times of a real disaster. At the post-crisis stage, the management should put in place a crisis recovery plan. This involves steps that are necessary to bring back the organization to its functioning position. This involves: existing backup of important information, logs, staff and other lists; conducting an insurance review to make sure that it can adequately compensate all risks incurred; exploring legal elements of recovery with the legal department; and reviewing all current service agreements and check for post-crisis provisions and recovery support. In a case where the company has experienced enduring crisis, which hinder the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operation, it could consider discontinuing the business segment, brand or subsidiary affected by the crisis for sometime or forever; or engaging a strategic business combination, such as merger, takeover or amalgamations. Although this may seem unwise in the short-term, in the long-term it makes sense to the company in te rms of; the crisis may spread to other segments, savings in future losses, company reputation and improve on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s return on investment (Reid 2000). Action Plan For the organization to successfully implement the strategic options at hand, it needs to adopt an action plan. More importantly the action plan should incorporate an elaborate and well-structures communication plan. The communication plan involves coordinating, directing and communicating and providing the levels of command and channels of communication among the crisis team, the stakeholders and media when handling a crisis. Crisis communication can transform the unexpected into the anticipated and save the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility and reputation. More importantly is the media management strategy. Media centre is set up that will be headed a chief spokesperson or a senior communications and public relations officer. From this centre, the Chief Executive Officer and the Managing Director will be personall y available to give media updates on the state of affairs. The chief spokesman is supposed handle the media while the rest of the staff are advised to keep off not to communicate with the media personally or give any information that could interrupt the process. However, the adopted action plan should not be static rather flexible and adaptable with pertinent inclusion of issues and specifics that have come up. The action should ensure inclusion of a clear hierarchy of command that mentions by name and authority assigned to a given position in the case of an emergency. The contact of such personnel both physical addresses, postal addresses and cell phone contacts shall be part of the list to ensure information is conveyed expeditiously. Evaluation of Results This will entail establishing a mechanism for setting an agenda for evaluation and review. In evaluation of results, feedback is an important pointer. In the midst or after a crisis, the company should institute a corporation fe edback mechanism where affected parties will forward their responses and feedback on how they think the situation was handled and ought to have been done or not. On the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s official website, the management should place a commentary or feedback portal that is interactive and offers necessary information. Also the corporation should design a facility level stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ scorecardsÃ¢â¬ managed by the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s CSO (The Economist 2009). Reference list Gottschalk, E. (2002). Crisis Management. Melbourne: John Sons. Reid, L. (2000). Crisis management: planning and media relations for the design and construction. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. The Economist (2009). Losing its shine: Toyota. The Economist, vol. 393, pp. 75-83. This essay on Toyota Corporation Issue management plan was written and submitted by user Trevor Frye to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.